Posted On : 30th August 2017

Computer Awareness | Most Important Terminology for IBPS Examinations

Data: It is a form of collective information in computer.

Database: Database is the collection of information in which similar type of data is collected in same set/class.

Binary code: The basic language of a computer. It is composed of a series of 0s and 1s.

Bug: It is a programming error which prevents computer from working correctly.

Cache: Cache is a component that stores data so future requests for that data can be served faster.

 Firewall: It is a set of software that prevents unauthorized persons from accessing certain parts of a program, database, or network.

 Ethernet: Protocol in the TCP/IP stack, describing how networked devices can format data for transmission to other network devices on the same network.

 ASCII: ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Computers can only understand numbers, so an ASCII code is the numerical representation of a character.

  Binary code: Binary code represents text and computer instructions in form of 0 & 1. It is basic language of computer.

  Bus: It is a pathway by which the data is transmitted.

 Cookie: It is a piece of information which is send by other website while using that website.

 Gig: It means a gigabyte which equals to 1024 megabyte.

 File Transfer Protocol: Network protocol used to transfer computer files between a client and server on a computer network.


Fragmentation: When memory is cut in small fragments it is called fragmentation.

 Compressions: It is a technique that reduces the size of file.

 HTTP: The Hypertext Protocol is the base by which one can communicate World Wide Web.

Operating System: It is a system software which manages hardware as well as software resources for computer programs.

 Intranet: Intranet is a private network which is accessible by the particular organization.

 Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): Is a markup language for describing web pages.

Compile: It is a process to convert program into machine code by which the program can be executed.

MIME: Multipurpose mail extension is the extension of original internet email to exchange different kind of images, videos, files etc.

 Root Directory: Main folder of a storage is called root directory.

 CMOS: It is the battery powered memory chip that stores data, time and calendar.

 Virus: It is a piece of code which disrupts the system by making it corrupted. The Virus can even replicate itself while getting transferred from one system to another via emails. The worst scenario is when virus deletes everything from the hard disk. The main purpose of a virus is making the whole system inactive.

Antivirus software: It is a series of coded programs which prevents the computer from the harmful virus like malware, trojan and much more. There are many antivirus software like Norton, Kaspersky, Avast, Quick heal, etc which needs to be updated in the system at regular intervals for its smooth operation.

Malware: It is malicious software which corrupts computer and mobile operations that  provide unauthorized access on private system and even displays harmful contents. The information on a specific system gets copied without the user’s notice and disrupts the normal operation. Usage of malware specific tools or antivirus helps to prevent malware. Mainly malware gets spread from a system to another through unwanted emails which are not from a specified sender.

Computer worm: This is a program of standalone malware where it gets spread through computer networks. The security failure of a system is the reason of such harmful computer worm. The important documents or files get deleted whenever a system is affected by the computer worm.

Trojan horse: It is a malicious program which affects the system of the users from its true intent. It introduces the virus to a system. They do not replicate themselves but are very destructive.

Authorization: It is the function of specifying access rights related to informational security or computer security but can only be controlled by a specified user. Authorization is an important aspect of computer and helps to maintain security as well as privacy.

Authentication: When the credentials are compared to those of the database of the original file it is termed as authentication. The true value of a data is checked over again to confirm. It helps the system to give authentic access to users.


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